Follow-Up Study of Crack Cocaine Users: Situation of the Patients After 2, 5, and 12 Years

21 de fevereiro de 20103min0
Authors: Andreacutea Costa Dias a;  Marcelo Ribeiro a;  John Dunn b;  Ricardo Sesso c; Ronaldo Laranjeira a
Affiliations: a UNIAD, Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Satildeo Paulo, Satildeo Paulo, Brazil
b North Camden Drug Service, Camden & Islington Mental Health & Social Care Trust, London, UK
c GRIDEC, Federal University of Satildeo Paulo (UNIFESP), Satildeo Paulo, Brazil
DOI: 10.1080/08897070802218125
Publication Frequency: 4 issues per year

Published in: journal Substance Abuse, Volume 29, Issue 3 August 2008 , pages 71 – 79
Formats available: HTML (English) : PDF (English)
Also incorporating: Journal of Teaching in the Addictions


The purpose of this study was to follow-up 131 crack users and examine drug use, treatment experience, employment status, and mortality at 2, 5, and 12 years. Consecutive crack dependent patients were re-interviewed in 1995-1996, 1998-1999, and 2005-2006. Of those subjects not using cocaine at 2 years, 19 (63%) were still abstinent at 5 years. Almost half of the users were abstinent at the same period. The abstinent group was still the most prevalent at 12 years. Twenty-seven (20.6%) patients had died by the 12-year follow-up, with homicide being the most common cause (n = 16). After 2000, however, it declined sharply with only 2 deaths in 7 years. There was a progressive movement toward abstinence over the follow-up period, with the evidence that once abstinence had been achieved it was maintained. On the other hand, the mortality rate was extremely high and probably more related with socioeconomic factors instead of the drug use itself.

Keywords: Crack cocaine; follow-up; mortality; treated patients

Sobre a UNIAD

A Unidade de Pesquisa em álcool e Drogas (UNIAD) foi fundada em 1994 pelo Prof. Dr. Ronaldo Laranjeira e John Dunn, recém-chegados da Inglaterra. A criação contou, na época, com o apoio do Departamento de Psiquiatria da UNIFESP. Inicialmente (1994-1996) funcionou dentro do Complexo Hospital São Paulo, com o objetivo de atender funcionários dependentes.


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