Louisa Degenhardt Amanda J. Baxter Yong Yi Lee Wayne Hall Grant E. Sara Nicole Johns Abraham Flaxman Harvey A. Whiteford Theo Vos
Cocaine and amphetamines are the two major psychostimulants used for recreational purposes globally. In 2012, it was estimated that there were 34 million amphetamine users worldwide (range 14‐53 million) and 17 million cocaine users (range 14‐21; The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2013). The UNODC (2012) has estimated that amphetamines were the second most commonly used illicit drug type worldwide, after cannabis. Amphetamine users outnumbered opioid users in all regions except Europe and South Asia. Cocaine was less commonly used globally, but was the second most commonly used illicit drug in Southern Africa, North America, South America, the Caribbean and West and Central Europe (UNODC, 2009).