Impact of alcohol on coronary heart disease in Indian men
Moderate alcohol consumption is believed to be protective against coronary heart disease (CHD). A ‘J’- or ‘U’-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and CHD is widely reported, with the lowest CHD and mortality rates being seen among lightto-moderate drinkers and higher rates among abstainers and heavy drinkers [1–4]. However, this hypothesis is challenged by a meta-analysis that demonstrated the lack of benefit of alcohol in preventing CHD . In addition ethnicity , gender [1–4], type of alcoholic beverage [7,8] and pattern of alcohol intake  also influence the relation between alcohol and CHD in various studies. In a prospective study in African Americans no J-shaped curve was found in the relationship between average volume of alcohol consumption and mortality for male or female African Americans. Instead, there was no beneficial effect and mortality increased with increasing average consumption of more than one drink a day . Limited data in Indians from the INTERHEART study, a case–control study of patients with incident acute myocardial infarction (MI), revealed that in South Asians alcohol consumption was not protective against CHD. Alcohol intake was associated with a higher odds ratio of MI particularly among Indians .