Paul McArdle, and Bisharda Angom
Adv. Psychiatr. Treat. 2012 18:299-307; doi:10.1192/apt.bp.106.003327
Substance misuse remains relatively common among adolescents. It can be conceptualised as one manifestation of a broader conduct problem or disinhibitory syndrome that is genetically transmitted. Some substances, notably alcohol, have potential direct effects on brain development. Availability of substances is a necessary condition for use, and recent marketing developments have unleashed a range of new agents. Nevertheless, there is considerable scope for prevention, brief intervention, pharmacological and more elaborate psychosocial treatments.